Coffee and humans go back a long way-back to 800 A.D. Legend has it that an Ethiopian goatherd noticed that his goats were frisky after eating a certain berry. The goatherd, kaldi tried the berries and found it banished sleep. Local monks heard of this wondrous berry and tried it out, making a drink of the berries. This discovery spread to Arabia, where sometime after 1000 A.D. coffee beans were roasted and brewed. Coffee as we know it had arrived. By the 13TH century, it was a popular drink with the populace. The Arabians, being inv eterate travellers, spread the coffee habit wherever they went, North Africa, India etc. However realizing the advantage of controlling the growing trade in coffee, they kept the fertile beans and their cultivation a secret. Thus only infertile beans (made infertile by boiling or parching) were traded and so no coffee was grown outside Arabia (and Africa of course) till the 17Th century. It is said that in the 1600s, an Indian traveller, Baba Budan smuggled fertile beans from Mecca, leading to a coffee cultivation boom worldwide. Coffee reached Europe in the 1600s where it was considered an exotic new drink. Coffee was a prized commodity and therefore affordable only to the rich. The growing popularity of Coffee meant that the traders were desperate to control production. In 1696, the Dutch managed to start a coffee plantation in their colony, Java (now a part of Indonesia). The plant was so valued that it was given as a present to kings. The Dutch, for example, gave a coffee plant to the French King, Louis XIV for his garden, Jardin des plantes. It was from this garden that a French naval officer, Gabriel Matthieu de Clieu stole a clipping tom grow this much sought after plant in Martinique (a French colony). Coffee had reached south America. The hunger for gaining a foothold in the coffee trade has led men to machinations, romantic dalliances, and Machiavellian plots. In 1727, Brazil sent Lt Col Francisco de Melo Palheta to get coffee plants from the French. The Governor of French Guyana’s wife became an unwitting pawn in this ambition. Brazil’s preeminence in coffee production is thanks to Palheta’s successful campaign. And thanks to Palheta, coffee became a common drink, no longer
Question 1.What is GST? How does it work?
Answer: GST is one indirect tax for the whole nation, which will make India one unified common market.
GST is a single tax on the supply of goods and services, right from the manufacturer to the consumer. Credits of input taxes paid at each stage will be available in the subsequent stage of value addition, which makes GST essentially a tax only on value addition at each stage. The final consumer will thus bear only the GST charged by the last dealer in the supply chain, with set-off benefits at all the previous stages.
Question 2. What are the benefits of GST?
Answer:The benefits of GST can be summarized as under:
- For business and industry
Easy compliance: A robust and comprehensive IT system would be the foundation of the GST regime in India. Therefore, all tax payer services such as registrations, returns, payments, etc. would be available to the taxpayers online, which would make compliance easy and transparent.
Uniformity of tax rates and structures: GST will ensure that indirect tax rates and structures are common across the country, thereby increasing certainty and ease of doing business. In other words, GST would make doing business in the country tax neutral, irrespective of the choice of place of doing business.
Removal of cascading: A system of seamless tax-credits throughout the value-chain, and across boundaries of States, would ensure that there is minimal cascading of taxes. This would reduce hidden costs of doing business.
Improved competitiveness: Reduction in transaction costs of doing business would eventually lead to an improved competitiveness for the trade and industry.
Gain to manufacturers and exporters: The subsuming of major Central and State taxes in GST, complete and comprehensive set-off of input goods and services and phasing out of Central Sales Tax (CST) would reduce the cost of locally manufactured goods and services. This will increase the competitiveness of Indian goods and services in the international market and give boost to Indian exports. The uniformity in tax rates and procedures across the country will also go a long way in reducing the compliance cost.
For Central and State Governments
Simple and easy to administer: Multiple indirect
Top 10 Best Coffee Brands in India 2017
Coffee is one of the favorite and temping beverages for many of us. Its rich aroma will always attract the people. India is now considered as the home of coffee, where we can see 16 varieties of coffee is grown in 13 distinct widespread regions. Here we are introducing top ten best coffee brands in India 2017. These companies are top leading in Indian market. All the companies are ensuring quality and taste of their products. If you are looking for a best coffee brand in India, check out our list. We hope that our list will help you to choose a right one.
Nescafe is most famous and also one of the oldest coffee brand in India. It has a strong hold over the Indian market. This brand is renowned for its rich taste and aroma. It was introduced in 1938 in Switzerland. This brand belongs to Nestle India Limited. This coffee brand has lot of manufacturing units and coffee machines set up at across the country. It marketing around 700 million cups of coffee every day.
Tata is one of the largest sellers of coffee powder in India, which has around 19 coffee estates in the southern parts of India. This brand is renowned for its best quality and taste. The Tata is known as the largest coffee manufacturer and exporter in the country. It has got numerous awards and recognition.
Bru is known as one of the favorite coffee brand in India, which was introduced by Hindustan Unilever Limited in 1969. It holds about 49.6% of the market share in India. This brand is considered as a second best selling, right after Nescafe. Bru is coming under the banner of Brooke Bond Green Label. BRU instant coffee, BRU Exotic, BRU Gold, BRU Select, BRU Roast and Ground etc are the variants of BRU coffee.
Davidoff is known as one of the luxury coffee brands having international fame and recognition. This coffee is made up of 100% Arabica beans, which are considered as the best coffee beans in the world. Its coffee sprouting up from a well-balanced climate. Davidoff provides a wide variety of flavors.
5. Narasu’s Coffee:-
Sugar Apple: Sugar Apple is a “Sweetsop”. It is most widely cultivated of all the species of Annona, being grown widely throughout the tropicals and warmer subtropicals. It is a deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub or small tree with size of 8 m tall. The leaves are looks like simple, oblong-lanceolate, 7-12 cm long and 3-4 cm broad in length. The flowers are formed in clusters of 3-4, each flower, with six petals, yellow-green spotted purple at the bottom. Taste– The fruit is generally looks like a round in shape, a little pine cone-like 2.4-3.9 in diameter. There are variations in shape and size. The fleshy fruit is very sweet to taste, white to light yellow, and resembles and tastes like custard. The edible portion coats of the seeds of this fruit generously like a gooey portion of a tomato seeds. Sugar-apple has a very discrete, sweet-smelling fragrance. It is a little grainy, a bit oily, very sweet and very soft. Look-The Sugar-apple, also called bullock’s heart or bull’s heart, is the fruit that tree is a family of Annon reticulata”. This tree is a small deciduous or semi-evergreen tree sometimes it will reaches a high of 10 mtrs in tall and a native of the tropical that prefers low elevations, and a warm, humid climate.The fruits are always variable in shape, oblong, or irregular. The size ranges from 7 cm to 12 cm. When ripen the fruit it will become a brown or yellowish, with red highlights and a varying degree of reticulation, depending on variety. The flavor is sweet and pleasant. Scientific Name:Annona reticulata
- Sugar Apple Tree
However, home landscape trees may be found by the side of the southeastern shore of Lake and in warm, protected locations beside the lower east and west coasts. Sugar apples are a common fruit tree in the home landscape throughout the tropicals and have been widely planted in south Florida. Small, open, spreading to upright tree with long, small branches trees are rarely exceed 15 to 20 ft in height and spread. Trees are deciduous; however, From the severity of cool winter temperatures, the rate of dropping leaves are calculated and leaf disease pressure, which is irritated by late summer-fall rainfall. Flowers appear during mid or late of the spring season as trees
|Common name||Binomial nomenclature||Colour||Density ¹||Location||Characteristics, Usage and Status|
|Aini or Aangili||Artocarpus hirsutus||Yellowish brown||595 kg/m3||1,003 lb/cu yd||Maharashtra,Andhra Pradesh,Tamil Nadu,Karnataka,Kerala||Elastic, close-grained, and strong. It takes polish. It can be used underwater. It is used for ordinary building construction, structural work, paving, furniture and so forth.|
|Arjun||Terminalia arjunaTerminalia elliptica||Dark brown||870 kg/m3||1,470 lb/cu yd||Central India||It is heavy and strong. It has such uses as beams,rafters, and posts.|
|Axlewood||Anogeissus latifolia||930 kg/m3||1,570 lb/cu yd||Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra,Madhya Pradesh, Bihar,Uttar Pradesh||It is very strong, hard and tough. It takes a smooth finish. It is subject to cracking.|
|Babul||Acacia niloticasubsp. indica||Whitish red||835 kg/m3||1,407 lb/cu yd||Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka,Bengal, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh||It is strong, hard and tough and it takes up a good polish. It is used for such products as bodies and wheels ofbullock cart, agricultural instruments, tool handles, and well curbs.|
|Bakul||Mimusops elengiMimusops parvifolia||Reddish brown||880 kg/m3||1,480 lb/cu yd||Some parts of North India||It is close-grained and tough. It is used for makingcabinets.|
|Bamboo||FamilyPoaceae, tribe Bambuseae||Throughout India, especiallyAssam and Bengal||Not actually a tree, but a woody grass, it is flexible, very strong and durable. It is used for scaffoldings, thatched roofs, rafters, temporary bridges, and so forth.|
|Banyan||Ficus benghalensis||Brown||580 kg/m3||980 lb/cu yd||Throughout India||It is strong and durable only under water. The aerial roots are utilized for such items as tent poles and well curbs.|
|Benteak||Lagerstoemia parviflora||675 kg/m3||1,138 lb/cu yd||Kerala, Madras, Maharashtra, Karnataka||It is strong and takes up a smooth surface. It may be used for building constructions, boat building and furniture.|
|Bijasal||Pterocarpus marsupium||Light brown||800 kg/m3||1,300 lb/cu yd||Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa||It is coarse-grained, durable and strong but difficult to work. Termites (also known as white ant) do not easily attack it. It is used for ordinary building construction and for cart wheels. Vulnerable|